Along with example of the different forms of assistive technology there is a clear separation of the ideologies… research instrument adequately covered the area being studied. The Open University for example, often supplemented books with radio and television programmes or video/audio tapes. On the other hand, if the web content is not accessible, then participation of learners with visual impairment in the knowledge society through information access is limited. They found that vendors rated their products as mostly accessible. 50, pp. The interface of choice for nearly all digital information centres is the world wide web (www). A significant number indicated that the available assistive technology was useful. Web content accessibility guidelines were used as a measurement of accessibility. On web accessibility, the research paper recommends that the library and information centre managers should ensure that the library websites are accessible to persons with visual impairment. Access to information enables individuals to acquire knowledge. The study recommends that the library should design a AT training program for learners with visual impairments as well as conducting regular and one on one training sessions. This is a good policy consideration by the library management when recruiting staff to serve at the section for users with special needs in future. In the past, distance learners received weighty workbooks via post. Coonin, B. Further, the library management should consider taking their staff through support programs on how to serve best, users with special needs with in service trainings being apart. We have recently updated our policy. The independent variable was use of adaptive technology. For example, the University of Edinburgh have developed learner-led accredited assessments that … In a study carried out by Dermody (2011) the students were forced to abandon articles because of technological barriers and this limited the amount of resources they could use to write their assignments. As they come to terms with this new reality, learners want schools and governments to address inequality in the learning experience, and desire digital skills they believe they will need to thrive in the new economy. Video mag­nifiers and electronic readers, Optical Character Recognition software, magnification software, speech output systems and electronic Braille de­vices all have a part to play in a solution for a particular individual. For quantitative methods, descriptive statistics was used while thematic analysis approach was used to analyze qualitative data. The researcher found it necessary to find out whether the available assistive technology at the Post Modern Library was useful to the students with visual impairments. Brophy, P., & Craven, J. (2002), “Establishing accessibility for e-journals: a suggested approach”, Information centre Hi Tech, Vol. Presence of adequate assistive technology. A study carried out in Canada by (Dermody & Majekodunmi, 2011) established out that there is no doubt that technology has opened the door for learners with disabilities. In order to make this information meaningful to the learner, self initiated information seeking behavior should be employed. This 2007 study from the vendor’s perspective influenced the authors to conduct their own test using learners with print disabilities. However a large number of students indicated that they lacked training on assistive technology. This is an indication that assistive technology is a useful skill to those that have acquired it and therefore can be specifically very useful in facilitating easy access to electronic information resources. Learners with visual impairment also have similar information needs as the other sighted learners. However, Byerley et al. Developments in technology have transformed both face-to-face and online learning. If this situation prevails, learners with visual impairment will continue lagging behind in the moving information world where knowledge is easily generated from the available electronic resources. Byerley, S.L., Chambers, M.B. The researcher also found it necessary to find out information concerning the rating of the students’ assistive technology skills. 2, pp. With technology and economic upheaval changing education forever, people are learning to move forward in a vastly changed world. Are the information websites accessible to learners with visual impairment? B., & Maatta, S. L. (2014). Second, once accessibility barriers have been overcome, the internet offers a quick access to information that was not readily accessible before (e.g. A strong interest in attaining digital skills to thrive through and beyond the pandemic. Further research in the area of web accessibility by learners with specific visual impairments (Blind, Low vision) was also recommended. Paul, S., & P. Singh, S. (2014). The study adopted the Experiential Learning theory proposed by Carl Rogers (1983). The 2007 study by Byerley et al., indicated that only five of the 12 vendors (EBSCO, Elsevier, JSTOR, LexisNexis, ProQuest) surveyed conducted usability testing with people who have visual disabilities. Technology is both an enabler and a barrier for learners with print disabilities. Use of social networks for academic purposes : a case study. Reliability: to ensure reliability, the questionnaires were pre-tested. Dermody, K., & Majekodunmi, N. (2011). Many students stated that there was no such organized training at the section for users with special needs. The total of those who supported this by disagreeing to the statement that ‘there was enough assistive technology in the library’ was 68.1% constituting the majority. They will not be able to access electronic resources which would be a rich bank of worldwide information in all fields of study. The purpose of this research paper was to explore web accessibility and use of assistive technology in accessing e-resources by students with visual impairments (VI). (2014). 4, pp. This was a significant number, close to half of the students involved in the study. When contents and services offered by the website of a company or organization are planned to be accessible they will be available to a wider range of users. On the basis of the cited research results, this study sought to find out the situation at Kenyatta University Post Modern Information centre, in availability of assistive technology and its use. Web Accessibility. Library Trends, 55(4), 950–972. The specific objectives were: To establish the literacy levels of students and staff in adaptive technology (AT), to find out whether the information websites are accessible to learners with visual impairment, to describe the successes in using assistive technology on the e-platform, and to describe the training offered to learners with visual impairment on access to e-resources. Often people will use a combination of the above technologies to enable them to read electronic print. The use of the internet is becoming an essential part of day-to-day living. Now in its second year, Pearson’s Global Learner Survey is the most comprehensive global public opinion survey of its kind. In relation to the lack of teacher knowledge, Abner and Lahn (2002) found in their survey in Kentucky of teachers of learners with visual impairments that the teachers did not, in general, feel competent to teach assistive technology. This could be attributed to the students’ background from the primary, secondary level or the parents’ ability to facilitate the training for the students in assistive technology before joining university. (2014). Web Accessibility, 55(4), 950–972. The technology survey is an in-depth survey that is conducted amongst an educational institutions faculty to gauge their level of use of technology and their perceived benefit about the use or non-use of technology. Learners and educators alike are often intimidated by—and even resistant to—the use of new technologies in a classroom setting. It is therefore important for the university management through the library management to come up with a strategy of ensuring that the students who join the university without these skills benefit, and with a keen eye on improving access to e-resources as well. Data collection technique: for the questionnaires, personal administration with on-the-spot-collection method was used. The findings of this paper are aimed at informing policy in the provision of access literacy skills especially on an e-platform. Therefore the necessity of this study was inevitable especially in this digital era of the information society. She asked the students to state the reasons why they found AT available not useful. The study recommended that: library information managers to encourage independence of learners with VI by improving web accessibility, equipping them with self reliant skills like information literacy and AT skills. The findings were: both staff and users with visual impairment had average skills in assistive technology on the e-platform; information websites were not accessible by learners with visual impairment; use of assistive technology to access e-resources was challenged and that learners lacked adequate skills in accessing e-resources using AT. In recent years, the information superhighway, the Internet, has become a global gateway for information dissemination with the ability to share worldwide collections of information (Ekwelem, 2013). It is also a good policy indicator to the library management to ensuring adequate provision of screen reading and screen magnification software for use by the library users with visual impairment. We are the world’s learning company with more than 24,000 employees operating in 70 countries. These are all too common these days, however this could affect the way an adult learner can access learning tools. 55-72. Carney, S. (2003). “As learners adjust to a world forever altered by a pandemic, we felt that it was more important than ever that we hear their voices. Ie more users and more use. For these reasons, there has been a great deal of research into how people with visual impairment access the internet, what they use the internet for and the barriers that they face (Hewett, Torgerson, & Douglas, 2014). Sample size: For the purpose of external validity of this study, the study population formed the sample. Their responses were as presented in figure 6: The findings indicated that more than half of the students engaged in the study either disagreed or strongly disagreed to the statement that ‘it is easy to access and use e-resources’. While this move has provided people with a more creative and flexible experience, there are dangers that some people will be excluded because they cannot use standard methods of access. The role of libraries in the implementation of the Marrakesh Treaty for persons with a print disability, 1–9. Tenopir et al. The findings were as described below: Majority stated that they lacked awareness on provision of such training at the library. (2009) as cited in (Nández & Borrego, 2014) showed that scholars’ use of electronic information has increased substantially over time as academic libraries transit from print to electronic collections. Nández, G., & Borrego, A. In order to explore whether the students with visual impairments found it easy to access and use e-resources or not, the researcher posed a statement that “it is easy to access and use e-resources” and the respondents were asked to indicate the level at which they agreed or disagreed to the statement. The reliability coefficient that was obtained from the pilot study was accepted since it attained a coefficient (0.75) which the researcher considered reasonable based on Orodho (2009). The graphic display may pose several challenges hence the need to explore how users with visual impairment view them as they search the web. We believe that wherever learning flourishes so do people. Do you have access to a hotspot or WI-FI at home? ICT have become the most suitable tool, in the field of education, to enhance independence and equal opportunities for all. The study also recommends that the library and information providers lays down strategies of ensuring that the use of assistive technology on the e-platform is not challenged. In this time of increased student need, some accessibility offices find themselves less equipped than before. In line with the implementation of Flexible Learning Options, this Office requests the teachers especially the class adviser to facilitate our learners in accomplishing the Technology Accessibility Survey through this link bit.ly/DasmaTS2020.This will support the implementation of future endeavors relative to said intervention. This can be extended to “when on the internet, use Chrome® as it won’t work on Internet Explorer®”. Horwath (2002) surveyed users who were blind or visually impaired on the usability of four databases and found that the design had the greatest impact on the accessibility of the databases. The task of this research paper was therefore to explore web accessibility and use of assistive technology in accessing e-resources by learners with visual impairment. and Chambers, M.B. A more recent study by Byerley, Chambers and Thohira, (2007) examined the accessibility of online databases from the database vendors’ perspectives. Think about an adult learner that simply uses Microsoft Windows® and only uses the built in web browser (Internet Explorer®): How would this affect them? Kenyatta University was purposively selected since it had the largest population of students with visual impairment. Various studies indicate that learners with disabilities experience unique challenges when accessing information centre resources (Byerley and Chambers, 2002; Coonin, 2002). 509-27. This is in line with findings by Carney (2003) that appropriate selection of devices and technology, and subsequent training, is crucial for ensuring proper use of such devices. 25 No. Nandez & Borrego in their 2014 study noted that the adoption of electronic information in academic setting has been extremely successful. After analysis, tables and graphs were used to present quantitative data while qualitative data was presented in textual mode. Diallo (2014) noted that English has become the dominant language around the world; "the years 1998-99 to 2008-09 saw an increase of 51% in the population in the pre-k-12 enrollment" (p. "English Language Learners (ELLs) are an educational priority in the United States as the country has become part of the global community because of technology and the interconnectedness of our cultures. From a global perspective there have been some concerns about persons with disabilities. Those findings appear in the second annual Global Learner Survey, which captures the opinions and views of learners worldwide. Technologies such as e-portfolios or blogs can enable learners to gain feedback from multiple audiences, reflect on their ongoing development, and make sense of their learning. This could be due to the fact that many of the students lacked knowledge on how to use assistive technology available in the library like screen readers. AHEAD is delighted to release 'Learning from Home During Covid-19: A Survey of Irish FET and HE Students with Disabilities' - a report gathering the findings of an AHEAD survey of learners with disabilities. Sampling techniques: Purposive sampling technique was used to select all respondents for this study. Having enough and skilled staff in the necessary areas as per the specific needs of the library users is vital. According to Dermody, database vendors are aware of the barriers their databases pose to learners who rely on screen readers. The ability to explore and describe web accessibility and use of assistive technology in accessing electronic information resources, would help information managers to consider ways of increasing accessibility to e-resources which would enhance access to information by this category of users. Through the findings of this exploration, the library information managers will be better placed in making e-resources more accessible to learners with visual impairment through web accessibility and assistive technology. Survey of Technology and Internet Access We are assessing the needs of our students for instruction at home. In addition they should ensure that the web sites are designed in such a way that they are accessible to this category of users. Research instruments: A questionnaire with both open and close-ended questions was used to collect data from learners with visual impairment while a structured interview was used for the staff. These findings confirm similar findings by Mittermeyer and Quirion (2003) and Nowcki (2003) which demonstrated that students as a general population have significant limited knowledge of the basic elements of research and database searching. Teaching Students with Visual Impairments. Saskatchewan Learning. e-book usage of graduate students studying educational sciences in turkiye, (January), 198–210. Ekwelem, V. O. New Survey: Learners with Disabilities and COVID-19 School Closures. This is a reason good enough for the low usage of e-resources by students with visual impairment in the postmodern library. Create your own online survey now with SurveyMonkey's expert certified FREE templates. Some well-known standards has been defined to answer to the need of profiling learners preferences and needs and in this subsection we are going to describe them. These computer-related aids and equipment are commonly known as “assistive,” “adaptive,” “access,” or “enabling” technology. In addition, they spend more time on the computer trying to retrieve a single information resource. Learn more Close this message and continue, Working and learning online during a pandemic, Committed to Equity and Opportunity for All Learners, Financial results and Annual Reports and Accounts, Investor Relations and Financial Media contacts, UN Sustainable Development Goals and Pearson. This has two implications for people who are visually impaired or blind. Technology can provide the means for a blind or partially sighted per­son to overcome barriers such as the need to read print, use a computer, take notes and communicate both on paper and electronically. To establish the literacy levels of students and staff in assistive technology. (2002), “Accessibility and usability of web-based information centre databases for non-visual users”, Information centre Hi Tech, Vol. Construct validity was achieved by ensuring that all the terms used were operationally defined. For those who indicated that the available assistive technology was not useful, the researcher further sought to know why they were not useful and yet AT was at least available. For instance, the advances in Web 2.0 and the new virtual learning environment does not always take into consideration whether or not it is compatible with the assistive technology learners rely on (Dermody & Majekodunmi, 2011). Whereas accessing electronic information resources offers opportunities to obtain accurate and timely literature, observation shows that there is low usage of these resources by learners with visual impairment in Kenyatta University. Many students could have the necessary knowledge in using AT and the library could be having AT present. However the article by Power and LeBeau (2009) suggests that academic reference librarians can provide students who use screen readers training sessions on how to navigate library databases. Complete guide to survey questions with survey examples and sample survey questions that include question types, answer types and good questions for a survey like the Dichotomous Survey Question, Multiple Choice Question, Rank Order Scaling Question, Rating Scale Question, Semantic Differential Scale, Stapel Scale Question, Constant Sum Survey Questions and much more! This could be attributed to lack of staff support through seminars and workshops on assistive technology. (2013). Global Study: Three out of Four Learners Believe the Pandemic Is Revolutionizing Education, Work, Find expert information to make the most out of online learning, August 10, 2020, 08:00 Byerley and Chambers (2002) examined the accessibility of two databases (OCLC First search and Expanded Academic) by blind learners using screen readers. (2007) indicated in their study that vendors are not addressing accessibility in their marketing efforts. The findings of this study suggest that there are various challenges facing students with visual impairments when accessing e-resources among which could be technological barriers like web inaccessibility. It was administered twice with a time span of two weeks to 4 students with VI who were purposively selected from Kenya institute of special education, a location that was not used during the main study and Spearman rank order of correlation coefficient (Rho) was computed to determine the correlation between the results of the two administrations of the questionnaires. If the web content is accessible to learners with visual impairment, then they too are able to access information, acquire knowledge, participate in the knowledge society and enjoy online inclusion. Considering ‘good’ as the bench mark, the staff skills in AT was not sufficient as per the findings. Information providers should only facilitate this process by ensuring that the right equipments are provided to them; assistive technology and skills on the use of assistive technology; as well as information retrieval skills. However if the available AT present does not tally with the number of students who are expected to use, then the available AT could be termed not useful as attributed to the stated speculation. Study location: The study was conducted in Kenyatta University Post Modern Library. Keywords: web accessibility, assistive technology (AT), e-resources, visual impairment. The students were asked to rate their abilities on the use of assistive technology and the findings were as presented in figure 3: Out of the total students who had indicated earlier that they had received training on the use of adaptive technology, majority rated themselves as having good assistive technology skills. (2007). For those who had not received training, the researcher further sought to establish the reasons for not attending or having received user education on how to access e-resources. Doiron, R. (2011), “Using e-books and e-readers to promote reading in school libraries: lessons from the field”, paper presented at the IFLA Conference, 13-18 August, San Juan, Puerto Rico. KEYBOARDING INSTRUCTION AT THE TORONTO DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD PILOT STUDY 2016-17: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE: This report describes the results from the evaluation of the keyboarding pilot program in 2016-17.The purpose of the evaluation was to inform decisions regarding the integration of … The findings contradict earlier findings by (Carney, 2003) which showed that the use of computers is particularly important to students with visual impairments, as their ability to use written communication can be enhanced and access to information improved. We use cookies to give you the best experience on our website. By continuing, you're agreeing to use of cookies. For students with handwriting difficulties, being able to take notes on a laptop or computerized device (such as an iPad) can improve the quantity and quality of the notes (Vaughn & Bos, 2009). 207-20. Service provision is a very important aspect in a library setting. The Global Learner Survey’s top findings included: To view the findings of the Global Learner Survey, including full findings for the US visit: go.pearson.com/global-learner-survey. However a small but significant number of students indicated that it was easy for them to use e-resources. With assistive technology being a practical skill, the ‘good’ rating could be attributed to continued usage of these skills through the available avenues like at the library. doi:10.1108/EL-03-2012-0031. Information managers therefore have a task of ensuring that all the categories of information users are not limited in any way by the technology. In his theory, Rogers emphasized the following: •        Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is relevant to the personal interests of the student, •        Learning which is threatening to the self (e.g., new attitudes or perspectives) are more easily assimilated when external threats are at a minimum, •        Learning proceeds faster when the threat to the self is low. Data analysis: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze the collected data. The specific objectives were: To establish the literacy levels of students and staff in adaptive technology (AT), to find out whether the information websites are accessible to learners with visual impairment, to describe the successes in using assistive technology on the e-platform, and to describe the training offered to learners with visual impairment on access to e-resources. Therefore the library management should ensure that training offered to users with visual impairment be provided by a staff with adequate skills in both assistive technology and access to electronic resources. Research Design: The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. doi:10.1108/EL-02-2012-0022. For the remaining adults (those with just one of these connection devices or neither of them), 64% have done personal learning in the past year. 10TH ed. While database and website design is evolving to the benefit of users who have vision, the contradiction is that their enriched features which create greater accessibility to information also creates barriers for learners who rely on screen readers (Dermody, 2011). Byerley, S.L. Although significant changes are taking place in Web technol­ogies, the graphical user interface (GUI) has rapidly become dominant and looks likely to remain so. This sample questionnaire template consists of various survey questions that are used to collect in-depth feedback about increased scope of using technology in education. Learners who rely on screen readers experience barriers accessing information due to their rich graphical interfaces and complex web designs of proprietary online databases. The process of seeking information generates knowledge by providing access to the bank of knowledge found in information resources which includes electronic resources. LONDON, Aug. 10, 2020 – Pearson, the world's learning company, today said more than three out of every four learners globally say the COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally changed education as we know it. Pro­vision of assistive equipment (adaptive, enabling, or access technology) will enable a user with visual impairment to access on-screen information receiv­ing output in a way that is appropriate to their needs. This finding could be attributed to inaccessible web designs, low literacy levels in using electronic resources, lack of knowledge in using assistive technology and lack of motivation in using e-resources possibly caused by the above factors. Relationships between SRS adoption attitude, learning approaches, and learning outcomes in higher-order thinking & learning and collaborative learning were analyzed with a … doi:10.1108/EL-04-2012-0041, Chia-chen, C. H. C., & Chen, C. (2014). The poll surveyed more than 7,000 people, ranging in age from 16 to 70. While screen readers enable learners to navigate their on-line environment, they are limited on how they can interpret a busy website. According to Brophy & Craven (2014), “Design for all” in a information centre environment basically means that information centre information technology (IT) systems and interfaces must be designed in a way that enables them to be read and interacted easily by all users of the information centre, whether they are physically visiting the information centre itself or accessing it remotely and regardless of any disability or access preference they may have. However, in addi­tion to this, the information provided on screen must be presented in a way that can be interpreted by any kind of access technology. In the Landmark survey, 9 percent of offices reported budget decreases, 17 percent reported staff reductions and 19 percent reported that their budgets were inadequate to meet needs, regardless of whether budgets were cut. The survey was administered to 1627 undergraduate students at a large comprehensive university in Hong Kong. This is an indication that since the library is a key facility in information seeking; the management could consider organizing formal training sessions on assistive technology either at the library or consider recommending such training through a relevant department like that of special education or through the directorate of disability services. The study also concluded that the success of using assistive technology on the e-platform is challenged. This study therefore seeks to explore whether the web content is accessible to learners with visual impairment and what are the implications of this accessibility on information access which further influences their participation in the knowledge society. To support the effectiveness of assistive technology, a survey of people with disabilities was conducted by The National Council on Disability (Berry & Ignash, 2003). In order to achieve the above mentioned objective the research sought to find out whether user education specific to accessing electronic resources was given to users with visual impairment. OK Question Title * 1. To the learner, placed in a classroom where they’re learning new concepts, sitting in tests and evaluations, and having to navigate a new social environment, the addition of technology can often feel more like a burden […] Online platforms like web pages are sources of information. However today lots of resources like; books, journals, encyclopedias, theses, scientific articles and reports, are open to access in electronic databases in digital media (Assist & Ongoz, 2010). , ranging in age from 16 to 70 complex web designs of proprietary online databases analysis both! 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