It also traces the evolution of the personal computer from the software hacker, to its use as a consumer appliance on the Internet. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Hun…, The concept of inventing hardware to assist in commercial productivity is not a modern concept. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. MOS Technology, Inc. was then owned by Commodore. 1981: The first IBM personal computer, code-named "Acorn," is introduced. Very large computers, like the Cray and IBM machines, were called mainframes or minicomputers.  The Apple II and the PET 2001 were advertised as personal computers, while the TRS-80 was described as a microcomputer used for household tasks including "personal financial management". Such low prices probably hurt home computers' reputation; one retail executive said of the 99/4A, '"When they went to $99, people started asking 'What's wrong with it? Although introduced in 1982, the CD ROM was mostly used for audio during the 1980s, and then for computer data such as operating systems and applications into the 1990s. In 1993, Samsung introduced its KM48SL2000 synchronous DRAM, and by 2000, SDRAM had replaced virtually all other types of DRAM in modern computers, because of its greater performance. The Altair 8800, from Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems (MITS) of Albuquerque, NM, was first featured in the January 1975 edition of Popular Electronics. The first model used an audio cassette for external storage, though there was an expensive floppy disk option. Hollerith's company, the Tabulating Machine Company, was the start of the computer business in the United States. In 1983 Apple Computer introduced the first mass-marketed microcomputer with a graphical user interface, the Lisa. In the end even Commodore's own finances were crippled by the demands of financing the massive building expansion needed to deliver the machines, and Tramiel was forced from the company. The demo was the culmination of research in Engelbart's Augmentation Research Center laboratory, which concentrated on applying computer technology to facilitate creative human thought. Many valiant knights had challenged Big Blue in the early years, among them Honeywell, Control Data, â¦ It has also made millionaires and billionaires of those who entered the business early.  An ARM-based processor is used in the Raspberry Pi, an inexpensive single-board computer. While these designs were being developed, the Trinity machines hit the market with considerable fanfare. Only 30 units of K-202 were ever produced and the company was shut down by a decree of communist regime.. The 5100 was withdrawn in March 1982. The deal was approved by the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States in March 2005, and completed in May 2005. While the hardware front panel emulated those used by early mainframe and minicomputers, after a very short time I/O through a terminal was the preferred human/machine interface, and front panels became extinct. Later systems added bootstrapping code to improve this process, and the machines became almost universally associated with the CP/M operating system, loaded from floppy disk. The RAM and graphics processors operated at 50 MHz.  By early that year Radio Shack, Commodore, and Apple manufactured the vast majority of the one half-million microcomputers that existed. Some computers were designed for the knowledgeable hobbyist, while others followed the lead of Apple. Check facts about computer aided design here. Based on their own 32-bit ARM RISC processor, the systems were shipped with a GUI OS called Arthur. In 1969 it was vital to be able to maintain contact in the event of a nuclear attack.  The prototype is in the Smithsonian Institution. Out of this desire came the Sol-20 computer, which placed an entire S-100 system â QWERTY keyboard, CPU, display card, memory and ports â into an attractive single box. One of the first small computers was a desktop model built by Hewlett Packard in 1972. As the microcomputer revolution continued, more robust versions of the same technology were used to produce microprocessor based servers that could also be linked to the LAN. At the â10 nm scale, quantum tunneling (especially through gaps) becomes a significant phenomenon. Personal computers are now a very common item in many houses yet in 1955, there were only 250 computers in use throughout the world. Drawing upon its experience with the Lisa, Apple launched the Macintosh in 1984, with an advertisement during the Super Bowl. Some of the first computers that might be called "personal" were early minicomputers such as the LINC and PDP-8, and later on VAX and larger minicomputers from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), Data General, Prime Computer, and others. Its other strong features were its full stroke QWERTY keyboard, small size, well written Microsoft floating-point BASIC and inclusion of a monitor and tape deck for approximately half the cost of the Apple II. Even those who fear or shun computers use them or come into contact with them every day. In keeping with MITS's earlier projects, the Altair was sold in kit form, although a relatively complex one consisting of four circuit boards and many parts. In 1974 the American electronics magazine Radio-Electronics described the Mark-8 computer kit, based on the Intel 8008 processor. By 1976, there were several firms racing to introduce the first truly successful commercial personal computers. NEC's PC-88 and PC-98 was the market leader, though with some competition from the Sharp X1 and X68000, the FM-7 and FM Towns, and the MSX and MSX2, the latter also gaining some popularity in Europe. The x86's lineage can be traced back to 1968, to a design on a napkin drawn by Austin O. It astonished viewers with its small, compact size and speed, but did not sell. It becomes the most commonly used bus in PC-compatible desktop computers. These tubes commonly powered radios and television sets at the time. When the PC was introduced in 1981, it was originally designated as the IBM 5150, putting it in the "5100" series, though its architecture wasn't directly descended from the IBM 5100. In 2011, Intel announces the commercialisation of Tri-gate transistor. However, the date of retrieval is often important. In May 2005, AMD and Intel released their first dual-core 64-bit processors, the Pentium D and the Athlon 64 X2 respectively. "Peer to peer" file sharing networks such as Napster, Kazaa and Gnutella arose to be used almost exclusively for sharing music files and became a primary computer activity for many individuals. ACPI then executes the desired operations (such as the initialization of hardware components) using an embedded minimal virtual machine. Facts about Computer History 8: Henry Edward Roberts If it is about personal computer term, it was Henry E.R who coined it. In 2003, AMD shipped its 64-bit based microprocessor line for desktop computers, Opteron and Athlon 64. Multi-core processors can be programmed and reasoned about using symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) techniques known since the 60s (see the SMP article for details). Minicomputers largely freed these organizations from the batch processing and bureaucracy of a commercial or university computing center. In 1989, Arthur was superseded by a multi-tasking GUI-based operating system called RISC OS. For that, a new type of personal computer has appeared: the laptop computer. The decimal system, a binary mathematical system, and Boolean algebra are required to make computers work. They are smaller, lighter, less expensive to make, cheaper to use, and more reliable than tubes. This form of communicat…, As the Internet becomes increasingly popular, a new paradigm is being developed in networked computing known as nomadic computing or mobile computing…, The History of George Catlett Marshall (14 June 1951, by Senator Joseph McCarthy), The Historical Roots of our Ecological Crisis, The Hill of Evil Counsel (Har Ha'etsah Hara'ah) by Amos Oz, 1974, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy 1981, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy 2005, The Hitchhiking Game (Falešný Autostop) by Milan Kundera, 1965. In 2013, a Xeon Phi extension card is released with 57 x86 cores, at a price of $1695, equalling circa 30 dollars per core.  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